Researchers from one of the largest cancer research and treatment organizations in the USA, have published preclinical research in Nature Communications demonstrating that a CAR T cell therapy targeting TAG72, a target found on the surface of ovarian cancer cells, eradicates cancer cells in mouse models. The researchers also found that by adding the cytokine Interleukin-12 (IL-12), a protein that sends signals to the immune system, to CAR T cell therapy, the treatment was more effective against cancer cells in the laboratory. They also showed that IL-12 also enabled the T cells to both fight the cancer and leave the tumor area, enter the bloodstream and target other cancer cells around the body. The therapy is currently undergoing a first-in-human Phase 1 trial in patients with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer who have already received platinum-based chemotherapy. The trial is testing the safety, side effects and activity of the therapy in patients. The trial is currently recruiting patients for treatment. IL-12 is not currently part of the ongoing Phase 1 clinical trial.