The viral protein of SARS-COV-2 called SPIKE links through its binding domain to the ACE2 receptor located on many human cells.  This allows the virus to enter the cells.  Researchers then performed mutations on the SPIKE binding domain and most of them alter the expression of the binding domain and its binding to ACE2. This study therefore identified regions on the surface of the SPIKE binding domain that may be potential targets for vaccines or antibody-based therapies.

Source https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-020-00502-w

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