Immunotherapy is an essential component of cancer treatment. However, despite the success of immunotherapies for various types of cancer, only a few cancer patients have shown responses to current immune therapies and therapies can have adverse effects. Therefore, researchers have created intramuscular messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) lipid nanoparticle (LNP) vaccines as likely candidates for therapeutic cancer vaccines. RNA molecules can be encapsulated in LNPs. In addition, single-stranded mRNA can encode tumor vaccine neo-antigens, while small double-stranded interfering RNA can encode knockdown checkpoint inhibitors to adjust immune responses through RNA-induced activation of suppressed immune cells. Circular-type RNA can increase expression time, which benefits the generation of chimeric antigen receptors (CAR) in vivo and vaccine antigens. Targeted delivery of LNP in vivo would be essential for generating CAR-T macrophages and lymphocytes, in vivo. Based on the results of the study, the LNP mRNA vaccine platform could be used to develop next-generation personalized cancer vaccines. However, additional research is needed to further our understanding of cancer biology and improve vaccine design for faster clinical translation.